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Christopher Walker, PhD

Staff photo

700 Childrens Dr
Columbus, OH 43205

Phone: (614) 722-2692

Email: walker.546@osu.edu


Current OSU Appointment

Professor, Pediatrics


Chapters in Books

Walker CM. "Cell-mediated immunity in the persistence and pathogenesis of Hepatitis C virus infecton: What can be learned from the chimpanzee model?." In Treatments in Hepatology. Edited by Arroyo V, Bosch J, Rodes J. 133-138. Barcelona, ES|ESP: Masson SA, January 1997.

Walker CM. "Hepatitis C Virus." In Persisten Viral Infections. Edited by Chen I, Ahmed R. 93-115. New York, NY, US|USA: Wiley Press, January 1999.

Walker CM. "Cell-mediated Immunity and the outcome of HCV infection in chimpanzees." In Frontiers in Viral Hepatitis. Edited by Schinazi RF, Rice C, and Sommadossi J-P. 59-70. NA, NL|NLD: Elsevier Sciences, January 2002.

Lemon SM, Walker CM, Alter MJ, Yi M. "Hepatitis C Viruses." In Fields Virology. -. Philadelphia, PA, US|USA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, January 2006.

Gal-Tanamy M, Walker CM, Poung S, Lemon SM. "Hepatitis C." In Vaccines for Biodefense and Emerging and Neglected Diseases. Edited by Barrett ADT, Stanberry LW. 414-441. Cambridge, MA, US|USA: Academic Press, January 2009.



1981 B.S., University of Guelph

1985 Ph.D., McMaster University

1989 None Indicated, University of California at San Francisco Advanced Endodontic Study Club


Journal Articles

Walker CM, Rawls WW, Rosenthal KL. "Generation of memory cell-mediated immune responses following secondary infection of mice with Pichinde virus." J Immunol. Vol. 132, (January 1984.): 469-.

Clark DA, Chaput A, Walker CM and Rosenthal KL. "Soluble suppressor activity obtained from murine decidua blocks the response to IL2." J Immunol. Vol. 134, (January 1985.): 1659-.

Walker, C, M; Paetkau, V; Rawls, W, E; Rosenthal, K L. "Abrogation of anti-Pichinde virus cytotoxic T cell memory by cyclophosphamide and restoration by coinfection or interleukin 2.." Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 135, no. 2. (January 1985.): 1401-7.

Rosenthal, K, L; Steiner, C; Rawls, W, E; Walker, C M. "Studies concerning the relationship of Pichinde virus-induced natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.." Medical microbiology and immunology. Vol. 175, no. 2-3. (January 1986.): 133-6.

Walker, C, M; Moody, D, J; Stites, D, P; Levy, J A. "CD8+ lymphocytes can control HIV infection in vitro by suppressing virus replication.." Science (New York, N.Y.). Vol. 234, no. 4783. (January 1986.): 1563-6.

Cowan MJ, Walker CM, Culver K, Weintrub PS, Wara DW, and Levy JA. "Maternally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection in children." AIDS. Vol. 2, (January 1988.): 437-441.

Walker CM, Steimer KS, Rosenthal KL, Levy JA. "Identification of HIV-1 envelope type-specific T helper cells in an HIV-infected individual." J Clin Invest. Vol. 82, (January 1988.): 2172-2175.

Walker, C, M; Levy, J A. "A diffusible lymphokine produced by CD8+ T lymphocytes suppresses HIV replication.." Immunology. Vol. 66, no. 4. (January 1989.): 628-30.

Walker, C M. "How do CD8+ T lymphocytes control HIV replication in vivo?." Research in immunology. Vol. 140, no. 1. (January 1989.): 115-8; discussion 122.

Castro, B, A; Walker, C, M; Tateno, M; Cheng-Mayer, C; Heberling, R; Eichberg, J, W; Levy, J A. "Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from experimentally infected chimpanzees: isolation and characterization.." Journal of medical primatology. Vol. 18, no. 3-4. (January 1989.): 337-42.

Walker, C, M; Moody, D, J; Stites, D, P; Levy, J A. "CD8+ T lymphocyte control of HIV replication in cultured CD4+ cells varies among infected individuals.." Cellular immunology. Vol. 119, no. 2. (January 1989.): 470-5.

Levy JA, Mackewicz CE, and Walker CM. "Primary HIV-1 infection (letter)." N Engl J Med. Vol. 325, (January 1990.): 734-.

Wiviott, L, D; Walker, C, M; Levy, J A. "CD8+ lymphocytes suppress HIV production by autologous CD4+ cells without eliminating the infected cells from culture.." Cellular immunology. Vol. 128, no. 2. (January 1990.): 628-34.

Walker, C, M; Thomson-Honnebier, G, A; Hsueh, F, C; Erickson, A, L; Pan, L, Z; Levy, J A. "CD8+ T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals inhibit acute infection by human and primate immunodeficiency viruses.." Cellular immunology. Vol. 137, no. 2. (January 1991.): 420-8.

Castro, B, A; Walker, C, M; Eichberg, J, W; Levy, J A. "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by CD8+ cells from infected and uninfected chimpanzees.." Cellular immunology. Vol. 132, no. 1. (January 1991.): 246-55.

Walker, C, M; Erickson, A, L; Hsueh, F, C; Levy, J A. "Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication in acutely infected CD4+ cells by CD8+ cells involves a noncytotoxic mechanism.." Journal of virology. Vol. 65, no. 11. (January 1991.): 5921-7.

Walker CM, Selby M, Erickson A, Cataldo D, Valensi JP and Van Nest GA. "Cationic lipids deliver a viral glycoprotein into the class I MHC antigen presentation pathway." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Vol. 89, (January 1992.): 7915-7918.

Perot, K; Walker, C, M; Spaete, R R. "Primary chimpanzee skin fibroblast cells are fully permissive for human cytomegalovirus replication.." The Journal of general virology. Vol. 73 ( Pt 12), (January 1992.): 3281-4.

Walker, C M. "Non-cytolytic control of HIV replication by CD8+ T cells.." Seminars in immunology. Vol. 5, no. 3. (January 1993.): 195-201.

Erickson, A, L; Walker, C M. "Class I major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T cell responses to vaccinia virus in humans.." The Journal of general virology. Vol. 74 ( Pt 4), (January 1993.): 751-4.

Erickson, A, L; Houghton, M; Choo, Q, L; Weiner, A, J; Ralston, R; Muchmore, E; Walker, C M. "Hepatitis C virus-specific CTL responses in the liver of chimpanzees with acute and chronic hepatitis C.." Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 151, no. 8. (January 1993.): 4189-99.

Erickson, A, L; Walker, C M. "An epitope in the V1 domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gp120 protein is recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes from an SIV-infected rhesus macaque.." Journal of virology. Vol. 68, no. 4. (January 1994.): 2756-9.

Doe, B; Steimer, K, S; Walker, C M. "Induction of HIV-1 envelope (gp120)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in mice by recombinant CHO cell-derived gp120 is enhanced by enzymatic removal of N-linked glycans.." European journal of immunology. Vol. 24, no. 10. (January 1994.): 2369-76.

Hsueh, F, W; Walker, C, M; Blackbourn, D, J; Levy, J A. "Suppression of HIV replication by CD8+ cell clones derived from HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.." Cellular immunology. Vol. 159, no. 2. (January 1994.): 271-9.

Weiner, A; Erickson, A, L; Kansopon, J; Crawford, K; Muchmore, E; Hughes, A, L; Houghton, M; Walker, C M. "Persistent hepatitis C virus infection in a chimpanzee is associated with emergence of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape variant.." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Vol. 92, no. 7. (January 1995.): 2755-9.

Rice, C, M; Walker, C M. "Hepatitis C virus-specific T lymphocyte responses.." Current opinion in immunology. Vol. 7, no. 4. (January 1995.): 532-8.

Weiner,A,J; Erickson,A,L; Kansopon,J; Crawford,K; Muchmore,E; Houghton,M; Walker,C,M. "Association of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations with persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.." Princess Takamatsu symposia. Vol. 25, (January 1995.): 227-235.

Kowalski, H; Erickson, A, L; Cooper, S; Domena, J, D; Parham, P; Walker, C M. "Patr-A and B, the orthologues of HLA-A and B, present hepatitis C virus epitopes to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells from two chronically infected chimpanzees.." The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 183, no. 4. (January 1996.): 1761-75.

Cooper, S; Kowalski, H; Erickson, A, L; Arnett, K; Little, A, M; Walker, C, M; Parham, P. "The presentation of a hepatitis C viral peptide by distinct major histocompatibility complex class I allotypes from two chimpanzee species.." The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 183, no. 2. (January 1996.): 663-8.

Paliard, ; XLee, A, Y; Walker, C M. "RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta are not involved in the inhibition of HIV-1SF33 replication mediated by CD8+ T-cell clones.." AIDS (London, England). Vol. 10, no. 12. (January 1996.): 1317-21.

Walker CM. "Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to the hepatitis C virus in humans and chimpanzees." Seminars in Virology. Vol. 7, (January 1996.): 13-21.

Doe, B; Walker, C M. "HIV-1 p24 Gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in mice.." AIDS (London, England). Vol. 10, no. 7. (January 1996.): 793-4.

Doe, B; Selby, M; Barnett, S; Baenziger, J; Walker, C M. "Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by intramuscular immunization with plasmid DNA is facilitated by bone marrow-derived cells.." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Vol. 93, no. 16. (January 1996.): 8578-83.

Manning, W, C; Paliard, ; XZhou, S; Pat Bland, M; Lee, A, Y; Hong, K; Walker, C, M; Escobedo, J, A; Dwarki, V. "Genetic immunization with adeno-associated virus vectors expressing herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoproteins B and D.." Journal of virology. Vol. 71, no. 10. (January 1997.): 7960-2.

Selby, M, J; Doe, B; Walker, C M. "Virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity elicited by coimmunization with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genes regulated by the bacteriophage T7 promoter and T7 RNA polymerase protein.." Journal of virology. Vol. 71, no. 10. (January 1997.): 7827-31.

Walker, C M. "Comparative features of hepatitis C virus infection in humans and chimpanzees.." Springer seminars in immunopathology. Vol. 19, no. 1. (January 1997.): 85-98.

Barnett, S, W; Rajasekar, S; Legg, H; Doe, B; Fuller, D, H; Haynes, J, R; Walker, C, M; Steimer, K S. "Vaccination with HIV-1 gp120 DNA induces immune responses that are boosted by a recombinant gp120 protein subunit.." Vaccine. Vol. 15, no. 8. (January 1997.): 869-73.

Barnett, S, W; Klinger, J, M; Doe, B; Walker, C, M; Hansen, L; Duliege, A, M; Sinangil, F M. "Prime-boost immunization strategies against HIV.." AIDS research and human retroviruses. Vol. 14 Suppl 3, (January 1998.): S299-309.

Paliard, ; XDoe, B; Walker, C M. "The T cell repertoire primed by antiviral vaccination is influenced by self-tolerance.." Cellular immunology. Vol. 188, no. 1. (January 1998.): 73-9.

Cooper, S; Adams, E, J; Wells, R, S; Walker, C, M; Parham, P. "A major histocompatibility complex class I allele shared by two species of chimpanzee.." Immunogenetics. Vol. 47, no. 3. (January 1998.): 212-7.

Selby M, Walker CM and Ulmer JB. "Mechanisms of action of DNA vaccines." Exp Opin Invest Drugs. Vol. 7, (January 1998.): 1987-1995.

Selby, M; Erickson, A; Dong, C; Cooper, S; Parham, P; Houghton, M; Walker, C M. "Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1 originates in the endoplasmic reticulum and requires cytoplasmic processing for presentation by class I MHC molecules.." Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 162, no. 2. (January 1999.): 669-76.

Furchner, M; Erickson, A, L; Allen, T; Watkins, D, I; Sette, A; Johnson, P, R; Walker, C M. "The simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein contains two epitopes presented by the Mamu-A*01 class I molecule.." Journal of virology. Vol. 73, no. 10. (January 1999.): 8035-9.

Cooper, S; Erickson, A, L; Adams, E, J; Kansopon, J; Weiner, A, J; Chien, D, Y; Houghton, M; Parham, P; Walker, C M. "Analysis of a successful immune response against hepatitis C virus.." Immunity. Vol. 10, no. 4. (January 1999.): 439-49.

Ohnimus, H; Heinkelein, M; Heeney, J, L; Walker, C, M; Jassoy, C. "Lysis of HIV envelope glycoprotein-expressing cells by CD4+ T lymphocytes from chimpanzees.." Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes and human retrovirology : official publication of the International Retrovirology Association. Vol. 20, no. 2. (January 1999.): 207-13.

McKinney, D, M; Erickson, A, L; Walker, C, M; Thimme, R; Chisari, F, V; Sidney, J; Sette, A. "Identification of five different Patr class I molecules that bind HLA supertype peptides and definition of their peptide binding motifs.." Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 165, no. 8. (January 2000.): 4414-22.

Sidney, J; Dzuris, J, L; Newman, M, J; Johnson, R, P; Kaur, A; Amitinder, K; Walker, C, M; Appella, E; Mothe, B; Watkins, D, I; Sette, A. "Definition of the Mamu A*01 peptide binding specificity: application to the identification of wild-type and optimized ligands from simian immunodeficiency virus regulatory proteins.." Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 165, no. 11. (January 2000.): 6387-99.

Paliard, ; XLiu, Y; Wagner, R; Wolf, H; Baenziger, J; Walker, C M. "Priming of strong, broad, and long-lived HIV type 1 p55gag-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells after administration of a virus-like particle vaccine in rhesus macaques.." AIDS research and human retroviruses. Vol. 16, no. 3. (January 2000.): 273-82.

Buck, C, B; Shen, ; XEgan, M, A; Pierson, T, C; Walker, C, M; Siliciano, R F. "The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene encodes an internal ribosome entry site.." Journal of virology. Vol. 75, no. 1. (January 2001.): 181-91.

Paliard, ; XDoe, B; Selby, M, J; Hartog, K; Lee, A, Y; Burke, R, L; Walker, C M. "Induction of herpes simplex virus gB-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in TAP1-deficient mice by genetic immunization but not HSV infection.." Virology. Vol. 282, no. 1. (January 2001.): 56-64.

Erickson, A, L; Kimura, Y; Igarashi, S; Eichelberger, J; Houghton, M; Sidney, J; McKinney, D; Sette, A; Hughes, A, L; Walker, C M. "The outcome of hepatitis C virus infection is predicted by escape mutations in epitopes targeted by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.." Immunity. Vol. 15, no. 6. (January 2001.): 883-95.

Davis NL, West A, Reap E, MacDonald G, Collier M, Dryga S, Maughan M, Connell M, Walker CM, McGrath K, Cecil C, Ping L-H, Frelinger J, Olmsted R, Keith P, Swanstrom R, Williamson C, Johnson P, Montefiori D, and Johnston RE. "Alphavirus replicon particles as candidate HIV vaccines." JUBMB Life. Vol. 53, (January 2002.): 209-211.

Woollard, David, J; Grakoui, Arash; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Murthy, Krishna, K; Campbell, Katherine, J; Walker, Christopher M. "Characterization of HCV-specific Patr class II restricted CD4+ T cell responses in an acutely infected chimpanzee.." Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). Vol. 38, no. 5. (January 2003.): 1297-306.

Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Grakoui, Arash; Houghton, Michael; Chien, David, Y; Ghrayeb, John; Reimann, Keith, A; Walker, Christopher M. "Memory CD8+ T cells are required for protection from persistent hepatitis C virus infection.." The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 197, no. 12. (January 2003.): 1645-55.

Sette, Alessandro; Sidney, John; Livingston, Brian, D; Dzuris, John, L; Crimi, Claire; Walker, Christopher, M; Southwood, Scott; Collins, Edward, J; Hughes, Austin L. "Class I molecules with similar peptide-binding specificities are the result of both common ancestry and convergent evolution.." Immunogenetics. Vol. 54, no. 12. (January 2003.): 830-41.

Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Brady, Kristen, W; Blackard, Jason, T; Allen, Todd, M; Islam, Sabina; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Hartman, Kelly; Walker, Christopher, M; Kalams, Spyros A. "Analysis of the TCR beta variable gene repertoire in chimpanzees: identification of functional homologs to human pseudogenes.." Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 170, no. 8. (January 2003.): 4161-9.

Sundaram, Roshni; Sun, Yiping; Walker, Christopher, M; Lemonnier, Francois, A; Jacobson, Steven; Kaumaya, Pravin T P. "A novel multivalent human CTL peptide construct elicits robust cellular immune responses in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice: implications for HTLV-1 vaccine design.." Vaccine. Vol. 21, no. 21-22. (January 2003.): 2767-81.

Grakoui, Arash; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Woollard, David, J; Han, Jin-Hwan; Hanson, Holly, L; Ghrayeb, John; Murthy, Krishna, K; Rice, Charles, M; Walker, Christopher M. "HCV persistence and immune evasion in the absence of memory T cell help.." Science (New York, N.Y.). Vol. 302, no. 5645. (January 2003.): 659-62.

Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Walker, Christopher M. "Conserved hierarchy of helper T cell responses in a chimpanzee during primary and secondary hepatitis C virus infections.." Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 172, no. 1. (January 2004.): 483-92.

Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Brady, Kristen, W; Kim, Helen; Olson, Douglas, P; Hartman, Kelly; Shintani, Ayumi, K; Walker, Christopher, M; Kalams, Spyros A. "Limited T cell receptor diversity of HCV-specific T cell responses is associated with CTL escape.." The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 200, no. 3. (January 2004.): 307-19.

Elkington, Rebecca; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Walker, Susan; Crough, Tania; Fazou, Chrysa; Kaur, Amitinder; Walker, Christopher, M; Khanna, Rajiv. "Cross-reactive recognition of human and primate cytomegalovirus sequences by human CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for glycoprotein B and H.." European journal of immunology. Vol. 34, no. 11. (January 2004.): 3216-26.

Larsson M, Babcock E, Grakoui A, Shoukry NH, Rice C, Walker CM and Bhardwaj N. "Lack of phenotypic and functional impairment in dendritic cells from chimpanzees chronically infected with hepatitis C virus." J Virol. Vol. 78, (January 2004.): 6151-6161.

Sundaram, Roshni; Lynch, Marcus, P; Rawale, Sharad; Dakappagari, Naveen; Young, Donn; Walker, Christopher, M; Lemonnier, Francois; Jacobson, Steven; Kaumaya, Pravin T P. "Protective efficacy of multiepitope human leukocyte antigen-A*0201 restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte peptide construct against challenge with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax recombinant vaccinia virus.." Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). Vol. 37, no. 3. (January 2004.): 1329-39.

Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Cawthon, Andrew, G; Walker, Christopher M. "Cell-mediated immunity and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection.." Annual review of microbiology. Vol. 58, (January 2004.): 391-424.

Kimura, Yoichi; Gushima, Toshifumi; Rawale, Sharad; Kaumaya, Pravin; Walker, Christopher M. "Escape mutations alter proteasome processing of major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted epitopes in persistent hepatitis C virus infection.." Journal of virology. Vol. 79, no. 8. (January 2005.): 4870-6.

Bowen, David, G; Walker, Christopher M. "Mutational escape from CD8+ T cell immunity: HCV evolution, from chimpanzees to man.." The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 201, no. 11. (January 2005.): 1709-14.

Bowen, David, G; Walker, Christopher M. "Adaptive immune responses in acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection.." Nature. Vol. 436, no. 7053. (January 2005.): 946-52.

Bowen, David, G; Walker, Christopher M. "The origin of quasispecies: cause or consequence of chronic hepatitis C viral infection?." Journal of hepatology. Vol. 42, no. 3. (January 2005.): 408-17.

Grakoui A, Wherry EJ, Hanson, HL, Walker CM, Ahmed R. "Turning on the off switch: regulation of anti-viral T cell responses in the liver by the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway." J Hepatol. Vol. 45, no. 4. (January 2006.): 468-472.

Sidney, John; Asabe, Shinichi; Peters, Bjoern; Purton, Kelly-Anne; Chung, Josan; Pencille, Timothy, J; Purcell, Robert; Walker, Christopher, M; Chisari, Francis, V; Sette, Alessandro. "Detailed characterization of the peptide binding specificity of five common Patr class I MHC molecules.." Immunogenetics. Vol. 58, no. 7. (January 2006.): 559-70.

Velazquez VM, Bowen DG, Walker CM. "Silencing of T lymphocytes by antigen-driven programmed death in recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV)-mediated gene therapy." Blood. Vol. 113, no. 3. (June 2008.): 538-545.

Uebelhoer L, Han JH, Callendret B, Mateu G, Shoukry NH, Hanson HL, Rice CM, Walker CM, Grakoui A. "Stable cytotoxic T cell escape mutation in hepatitis C virus is linked to maintenance of viral fitness." PLoS Pathog. Vol. 4, no. 9. (September 2008.): e1000143-.

Ramalingam RK, Meyer-Olson D, Shoukry NH, Bowen DG, Walker CM, Kalams SA. "Kinetic analysis by real-time PCR of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cells in peripheral blood and liver after challenge with HCV." J Virol. Vol. 82, no. 21. (November 2008.): 10487-10492.

Bowen DG, Shoukry NH, Grakoui A, Fuller MJ, Cawthon AG, Dong C, Hasselschwert DL, Brasky KM, Freeman GJ, Seth NP, Wucherpfennig KW, Houghton M, Walker CM. "Variable patterns of programmed death-1 expression on fully functional memory T cells after spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus infection." J Virol. Vol. 82, no. 10. (May 2008.): 5109-5114.

Mendell JR, Rodino-Klapac LR, Rosales-Quintero X, Kota J, Coley BD, Galloway G, Craenen JM, Lewis S, Malik V, Shilling C, Byrne BJ, Conlon T, Campbell KJ, Bremer WG, Viollet L, Walker CM, Sahenk Z, Clark KR. "Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D gene therapy restores alpha-sarcoglycan and associated proteins." Ann Neurol. Vol. 66, no. 3. (January 2009.): 290-297.

Kamili S, Sozzi V, Thompson G, Campbell K, Walker CM, Locarnini S, and Krawczynski K. "Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine against antiviral drug-resistant hepatitis B virus mutants in the chimpanzee model." Hepatology. Vol. 49, no. 5. (January 2009.): 1483-1491.

Kota J, Handy CR, Haidet AM, Montgomery CL, Eagle A, Rodino-Klapac LR, Tucker D, Shilling CJ, Therlfall WR, Walker CM, Weisbrode SE, Janssen PML, Clark KR, Sahenk Z, Mendell JR, Kaspar BK. "Follistatin gene delivery enhances muscle growth and strength in nonhuman primates." Science Translational Medicine. Vol. 1, no. 6. (November 2009.): 6-15.

Velazquez VM, Bowen DG, and Walker CM. "Silencing of T lymphocytes by antigen-driven programmed death in recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV)-mediated gene therapy." Blood. Vol. 113, no. 3. (January 2009.): 538-545.

Mendell JR, Rodino-Klapac LR, Rosales XQ, Coley BD, Galloway G, Lewis S, Malik V, Shilling C, Byrne BJ, Conlon T, Campbell KJ, Bremer WG, Taylor LE, Flanigan KM, Gastier-Foster JM, Astbury C, Kota J, Sahenk Z, Walker CM, Clark KR.. "Sustained alpha-sarcoglycan gene expression after gene transfer in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, type 2D.." Ann Neurol. Vol. 68, no. 5. (January 2010.): 629-638.

Mendell JR, Campbell K, Rodino-Klapac L, Sahenk Z, Shilling C, Lewis S, Bowles D, Gray S, Li C, Galloway G, Malik V, Coley B, Clark KR, Li J, Xiao X, Samulski J, McPhee SW, Samulski RJ, Walker CM.. "Dystrophin immunity in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.." NEJM. Vol. 363, no. 15. (January 2010.): 1429-1437.

Malik V, Rodino-Klapac LR, Viollet L, Wall C, King W, Al-Dahhak R, Lewis S, Shilling CJ, Kota J, Serrano-Munuera C, Hayes J, Mahan JD, Campbell KJ, Banwell B, Dasouki M, Watts V, Sivakumar K, Bien-Willner R, Flanigan KM, Sahenk Z, Barohn RJ, Walker CM, and Mendell JR.. "Gentamicin-induced readthrough of stop codons in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.." Annals Neurol. Vol. 67, no. 6. (January 2010.): 771-780.

Rodino-Klapac LR, Montgomery CL, Bremer WG, Shontz KM, Malik V, Davis N, Sprinkle S, Campbell KJ, Sahenk Z, Clark KR, Walker CM, Mendell JR, and Chicoine LG. "Persistent Expression of FLAG-tagged micro dystrophin in nonhuman primates following intramuscular and vascular delivery." Mol Ther. Vol. 18, no. 1. (January 2010.): 109-117.

Gottwein JM, Scheel TK, Callendret B, Li YP, Eccleston HB, Engle RE, Govindarajan S, Satterfield W, Purcell RH, Walker CM, Bukh J. "Novel infectious cDNA clones of hepatitis C virus genotype 3a (strain S52) and 4a (strain ED43): genetic analyses and in vivo pathogenesis studies.." J Virol. Vol. 84, no. 10. (January 2010.): 5277-5293.

Mendell,Jerry,R; Campbell,Katherine; Rodino-Klapac,Louise; Sahenk,Zarife; Shilling,Chris; Lewis,Sarah; Bowles,Dawn; Gray,Steven; Li,Chengwen; Galloway,Gloria; Malik,Vinod; Coley,Brian; Clark,K,Reed; Li,Juan; Xiao,Xiao; Samulski,Jade; McPhee,Scott,W; Samulski,R,Jude; Walker,Christopher,M. "Dystrophin immunity in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.." New England journal of medicine. Vol. 363, no. 15. (October 2010.): 1429-1437.

Fuller MJ, Shoukry NH, Gushima T, Bowen DG, Callendret B, Campbell KJ, Hasselschwert DL, Hughes AL, Walker CM. "Selection-driven immune escape is not a significant factor in the failure of CD4 T cell responses in persistent hepatitis C virus infection." Hepatology. Vol. 51, no. 2. (January 2010.): 378-387.

Walker CM. "Adaptive immunity to the hepatitis C virus.." Adv Virus Res. Vol. 78, (January 2010.): 43-86.

Lanford,Robert,E; Feng,Zongdi; Chavez,Deborah; Guerra,Bernadette; Brasky,Kathleen,M; Zhou,Yan; Yamane,Daisuke; Perelson,Alan,S; Walker,Christopher,M; Lemon,Stanley,M. "Acute hepatitis A virus infection is associated with a limited type I interferon response and persistence of intrahepatic viral RNA." PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Vol. 108, no. 27. (July 2011.): 11223-11228.

Callendret,Benoit; Bukh,Jens; Eccleston,Heather,B; Heksch,Ryan; Hasselschwert,Dana,L; Purcell,Robert,H; Hughes,Austin,L; Walker,Christopher,M. "Transmission of Clonal Hepatitis C Virus Genomes Reveals the Dominant but Transitory Role of CD8(+) T Cells in Early Viral Evolution." JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY. Vol. 85, no. 22. (November 2011.): 11833-11845.

Xu,Dan; Walker,Christopher,M. "Continuous CD8(+) T-Cell Priming by Dendritic Cell Cross-Presentation of Persistent Antigen following Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Delivery." JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY. Vol. 85, no. 22. (November 2011.): 12083-12086.

Callendret B, Walker CM. "13. Will there be a vaccine to protect against the hepatitis C virus?." Gastroenterology. Vol. 142, no. 6. (May 2012.): 1384-7.

Zhou Y, Callendret B, Xu D, Brasky KM, Feng Z, Hensley LL, Guedj J, Perelson AS, Lemon SM, Lanford RE, Walker CM.. "Dominance of the CD4(+) T helper cell response during acute resolving hepatitis A virus infection.." J Exp Med. Vol. 209, no. 8. (July 2012.): 1481-92.

Mendell JR, Rodino-Klapac L, Sahenk Z, Malik V, Kaspar BK, Walker CM, Clark KR. "Gene therapy for muscular dystrophy: lessons learned and path forward.." Neurosci Lett. Vol. 527, no. 2. (October 2012.): 90-9.

Fuller,Michael,J; Callendret,Benoit; Zhu,Baogong; Freeman,Gordon,J; Hasselschwert,Dana,L; Satterfield,William; Sharpe,Arlene,H; Dustin,Lynn,B; Rice,Charles,M; Grakoui,Arash; Ahmed,Rafi; Walker,Christopher,M. "Immunotherapy of chronic hepatitis C virus infection with antibodies against programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)." PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Vol. 110, no. 37. (September 2013.): 15001-15006.

Feng,Zongdi; Hensley,Lucinda; McKnight,Kevin,L; Hu,Fengyu; Madden,Victoria; Ping,Lifang; Jeong,Sook-Hyang; Walker,Christopher; Lanford,Robert,E; Lemon,Stanley,M. "A pathogenic picornavirus acquires an envelope by hijacking cellular membranes." NATURE. Vol. 496, no. 7445. (April 2013.): 367-71.

Honegger,Jonathan,R; Kim,Seungtaek; Price,Aryn,A; Kohout,Jennifer,A; McKnight,Kevin,L; Prasad,Mona,R; Lemon,Stanley,M; Grakoui,Arash; Walker,Christopher,M. "Loss of immune escape mutations during persistent HCV infection in pregnancy enhances replication of vertically transmitted viruses." NATURE MEDICINE. Vol. 19, no. 11. (November 2013.): 1529-33.

Flanigan,Kevin,M; Campbell,Katie; Viollet,Laurence; Wang,Wei; Gomez,Ana,Maria; Walker,Christopher,M; Mendell,Jerry,R. "Anti-Dystrophin T Cell Responses in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Prevalence and a Glucocorticoid Treatment Effect." HUMAN GENE THERAPY. Vol. 24, no. 9. (September 2013.): 797-806.

Mendell,Jerry,R; Rodino-Klapac,Louise,R; Sahenk,Zarife; Roush,Kandice; Bird,Loren; Lowes,Linda,P; Alfano,Lindsay; Gomez,Ann,Maria; Lewis,Sarah; Kota,Janaiah; Malik,Vinod; Shontz,Kim; Walker,Christopher,M; Flanigan,Kevin,M; Corridore,Marco; Kean,John,R; Allen,Hugh,D; Shilling,Chris; Melia,Kathleen,R; Sazani,Peter; Saoud,Jay,B; Kaye,Edward,M. "Eteplirsen for the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy." ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY. Vol. 74, no. 5. (November 2013.): 637-647.

Chicoine LG, Rodino-Klapac LR, Shao G, Xu R, Bremer WG, Camboni M, Golden B, Montgomery CL, Shontz K, Heller KN, Griffin DA, Lewis S, Coley BD, Walker CM, Clark KR, Sahenk Z, Mendell JR, Martin PT. "Vascular delivery of rAAV rh74.MCK.GALGT2 to the gastrocnemius muscle of the rhesus macaque stimulates the expression of dystrophin and laminim a2 surrogates." Mol Ther. Vol. 22, no. 4. (October 2013.): 713-24.

Chicoine L, Montgomery C, Bremer W, Shontz K, Griffin D, Heller K, Lewis S, Malik V, Grose W, Shilling C, Campbell K, Preston T, Coley B, Martin P, Walker C, Clark K, Sahenk Z, Mendell J, Rodino-Klapac L. "Plasmapheresis eliminates the negative impact of AAV antibodies on microdystrophin gene expression following vascular delivery." Mol Ther. Vol. 22, no. 2. (October 2013.): 338-47.

Yalvac,Mehmet,E; Arnold,William,David; Hussain,Syed-Rehan,A; Braganza,Cilwyn; Shontz,Kimberly,M; Clark,Kelly,Reed; Walker,Christopher,M; Ubogu,Eroboghene,E; Mendell,Jerry,R; Sahenk,Zarife. "VIP-expressing Dendritic Cells Protect Against Spontaneous Autoimmune Peripheral Polyneuropathy." MOLECULAR THERAPY. Vol. 22, no. 7. (July 2014.): 1353-1363.

Callendret,Benoit; Eccleston,Heather,B; Hall,Shelby; Satterfield,William; Capone,Stefania; Folgori,Antonella; Cortese,Riccardo; Nicosia,Alfredo; Walker,Christopher,M. "T-Cell Immunity and Hepatitis C Virus Reinfection After Cure of Chronic Hepatitis C With an Interferon-Free Antiviral Regimen in a Chimpanzee." HEPATOLOGY. Vol. 60, no. 5. (November 2014.): 1531-1540.

Yi M, Hu F, Joyce M, Saxena V, Welsch C, Chavez D, Guerra B, Yamane D, Veselenak R, Pyles R, Walker CM , Tyrrell L, Bourne N, Lanford RE, Lemon SM. "Evolution of a cell culture-derived genotype 1a hepatitis C virus (H77S.2) during persistent infection with chronic hepatitis in a chimpanzee." J Virol. Vol. 88, no. 7. (January 2014.): 3678-94.

Honegger,Jonathan,R; Zhou,Yan; Walker,Christopher,M. "Will There Be a Vaccine to Prevent HCV Infection?." SEMINARS IN LIVER DISEASE. Vol. 34, no. 1. (February 2014.): 79-88.

Murrey,Darren,A; Naughton,Bartholomew,J; Duncan,F,Jason; Meadows,Aaron,S; Ware,Tierra,A; Campbell,Katie,J; Bremer,William,G; Walker,Christopher,M; Goodchild,Laurie; Bolon,Brad; La Perle,Krista; Flanigan,Kevin,M; McBride,Kim,L; McCarty,Douglas,M; Fu,Haiyan. "Feasibility and Safety of Systemic rAAV9-hNAGLU Delivery for Treating Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB: Toxicology, Biodistribution, and Immunological Assessments in Primates." HUMAN GENE THERAPY CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT. Vol. 25, no. 2. (June 2014.): 72-84.

Feng,Zongdi; Li,You; McKnight,Kevin,L; Hensley,Lucinda; Lanford,Robert,E; Walker,Christopher,M; Lemon,Stanley,M. "Human pDCs preferentially sense enveloped hepatitis A virions." JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION. Vol. 125, no. 1. (January 2015.): 169-176.

Timm,Joerg; Walker,Christopher,M. "Mutational escape of CD8+T cell epitopes: implications for prevention and therapy of persistent hepatitis virus infections." MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY. Vol. 204, no. 1. (February 2015.): 29-38.

Meadows,Aaron,S; Duncan,F,Jason; Camboni,Marybeth; Waligura,Kathryn; Montgomery,Chrystal; Zaraspe,Kimberly; Naughton,Bartholomew,J; Bremer,William,G; Shilling,Christopher; Walker,Christopher,M; Bolon,Brad; Flanigan,Kevin,M; McBride,Kim,L; McCarty,Douglas,M; Fu,Haiyan. "A GLP-Compliant Toxicology and Biodistribution Study: Systemic Delivery of an rAAV9 Vector for the Treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB." HUMAN GENE THERAPY CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT. Vol. 26, no. 4. (December 2015.): 228-242.

Walker,Christopher,M; Grakoui,Arash. "Hepatitis C virus: why do we need a vaccine to prevent a curable persistent infection?." CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY. Vol. 35, (August 2015.): 137-143.

Rybczynska,Jolanta; Campbell,Katherine; Kamili,Saleem; Locarnini,Stephen; Krawczynski,Krzysztof; Walker,Christopher,M. "CD4(+) T Cells Are Not Required for Suppression of Hepatitis B Virus Replication in the Liver of Vaccinated Chimpanzees." JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Vol. 213, no. 1. (January 2016.): 49-56.

Honegger JR, Tedesco D, Kohout JA Prasad MR, Price AA, Lindquist T, Ohmer S, Moore-Clingenpeel M, Grakoui A, and Walker CM. "Influence of INL3 and HLA-DPB1 genotuype on pospartum control of hepatitis C virus replication and T-cell recovery." PNAS. Vol. In press, (September 2016.): NA-.

Song,SungWon; Miranda,Carlos,J; Braun,Lyndsey; Meyer,Kathrin; Frakes,Ashley,E; Ferraiuolo,Laura; Likhite,Shibi; Bevan,Adam,K; Foust,Kevin,D; McConnell,Michael,J; Walker,Christopher,M; Kaspar,Brian,K. "Major histocompatibility complex class I molecules protect motor neurons from astrocyte-induced toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.." Nature medicine. Vol. 22, no. 4. (April 2016.): 397-403.